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TMJ

One of the most common problems with Botox injections given for chronic migraines is that doctors use the standard protocol without adjusting the dose. One of my patients is an 83 year old woman with chronic migraines who has done exceptionally well with Botox injections with no side effects for the past 16 years. She recently started living in Florida during the winter and had Botox injections given by a local doctor. I provided her with a copy of the injection sites and the total dose, which was 65 units given into 20 sites in the forehead and temples. Her Florida neurologist insisted on giving her the standard 31 injections with 155 units all around the head, neck and shoulders. The result was that she developed drooping of her eyelids and pain and weakness of her neck. It defies common sense to inject a small woman who weighs 90 lbs with the same amount of Botox as a 200-lbs man.

Sticking strictly to the protocol prevents many doctors from addressing clenching and grinding of the teeth (TMJ syndrome), which often worsens migraines. Injecting Botox into the masseter muscles (chewing muscles at the corner of the lower jaw) can have a dramatic effect on TMJ pain and migraines. Other patients may need additional injections into the scalp or upper back, depending on where the pain is felt. Since Botox comes only in 100 and 200 unit vials, if the insurance company approves Botox, it sends us 200 units. Instead of discarding the remaining 45 units, we usually give additional injections into the areas of pain that may not be included in the standard protocol.

Giving injections every 3 months or even every 12 weeks works well for many patients. However, about a quarter of my migraine patients find that the effect of Botox lasts only 10 weeks and in a small number , even less than 10 weeks. Fortunately, some insurance companies allow Botox to be administered every 10 weeks, but many do not. Some even limit injections to every 3 months, and not a day earlier, even though the clinical trials that led to the FDA approval involved giving injections every 12 weeks. Having a week or two of worsening migraines can eliminate the cumulative effect we see with repeated treatments. That is, each subsequent Botox treatment provides better relief than the previous one. This may not the case if headaches worsen before the next treatment is given.

Cosmetic concerns are not trivial since Botox injections can make you look strange – as if you are always surprised or look sinister with the ends of your eyebrows always lifted. This can be easily avoided by injecting a very small amount of Botox into the appropriate muscles above the ends of the eyebrows or a little beyond them. In some patients this can be predicted before the first treatment by looking at the lines seen with lifting of the eyebrows. In others, it becomes apparent only after the first treatment. If the appearance is very unappealing, we ask the patient to return to get two small additional injections for which we do not charge.

To minimize bruising and pain we use very thin needles. A 30-gauge needle is used most often, however an even thinner, 33-gauge needle is also available, but is rarely used (higher number indicates a thinner needle). We recommend using a 33-gauge needles, at least for the forehead, where injections tend to be more painful and where bruising, if it happens, is very visible.

Many dermatologists and plastic surgeons tell their patients not to bend down or do anything strenuous to avoid movement of Botox which may lead to drooping of the eyelids. There is no theoretical or practical evidence for this restriction. Once injected, Botox does not move around freely but stays in the injected area. In my 22 years of injecting Botox, I’ve treated thousands of headache sufferers and fewer than 1% of patients developed drooping eyelids and none were related to bending or any other activities. Drooping is more common in older patients, is always reversible within days or weeks, and sometimes can be relieved by eye drops (aproclonidine).

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The FDA-approved protocol for Botox injections for chronic migraines calls for 31 injections with 155 units of Botox. This is the protocol we teach young doctors and new injectors.

However, just like with any other medication, doctors are allowed to go “off label”, meaning that we can inject Botox for headache types and pain conditions other than chronic migraine (in which case insurance will usually not pay) and we can also adjust the number of injection sites and the total dose of Botox when treating patients with chronic migraines. I have a fair number of patients who need up to 200 units and on a very rare occasion even 300. The maximum dose allowed during a single treatment is 400 units, which is usually needed when injecting large muscles in arms and legs, like in cerebral palsy or spasticity due to strokes.

This YouTube video shows injections for chronic migraines with additional injections into the masseter muscles (at the corner of the jaw) to treat TMJ syndrome, which is also called temporomandibular disorder. Injections of the temporalis muscles in the temples, which are also involved in chewing and which are always injected for chronic migraines, also helps relieve TMJ syndrome.

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Temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction (TMD) treated with a brief course of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in addition to standard care improves long-term outcomes, according to a new study published in journal Pain.  A group of 101 patients who had pain in TMJ for at least 3 months were included in this study. Standard treatment included splinting, soft diet and an anti-inflammatory drug and was given to all patients. Fifty two patients also received six weekly sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Both those who received standard therapy alone and those who also received CBT improved, however addition of CBT provided additional pain relief, particularly in those people who were open to it and prepared to use it.

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